IQ Glossary

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Person/Client Centred Psychotherapy
Person centred psychotherapy was developed by Carl Rogers. He referred to it as counselling rather than psychotherapy. He also believed that the relationship between the client and the therapist is not a patient-doctor relationship in which the patient passively submits to something that is done to him/her by the healer. On the contrary, it should be a person-to-person relationship in which the therapists talks with the client. By using the word "client" instead of "patient," Rogers wanted to indicate that the client is not sick in any organic sense.

Personality
In psychology, personality describes the character of emotion, thought, and behavior patterns unique to a person. There are several theoretical perspectives on personality in psychology, which involve different ideas about the relationship between personality and other psychological constructs, as well as different theories about the way personality develops

Philosophy Of Mind
Philosophy of mind is the philosophical study of the nature of the mind, mental events, mental functions, and consciousness.

Psychiatry
Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that studies and treats mental and emotional disorders, some of which are listed on the mental illness page. The term alienist is an old term for a psychiatrist.

Psychological Testing
Psychological testing is a field characterized by the use of small samples of behavior in order to infer larger generalizations about a given individual. The technical term for psychological testing is psychometrics. By samples of behavior, we mean observations of the individual over a limited amount of time performing tasks which have usually been prescribed beforehand, often with a great deal of research into the responses of members of a norm group. These responses are often compiled into statistical tables that allow the evaluator to compare the behavior of the individual being tested to the responses of the range of responses given by people in the norm group. When multiple tests are administered, the procedure is referred to as full battery assessment.

Psychology
Psychology is an applied discipline and applied profession concerned with the study of and intervention in mental states, processes, and behavioral patterns of humans and, to an extent, of animals (though the study of animal behavior, ethology, is more often regarded a branch of biology than of psychology). Psychologists also study interactions between individuals and groups of individuals, and between individuals, groups and their environment. Disciplines that are traditionally considered to intersect with psychology are sociology, anthropology, biology, and philosophy, but more recently fields such as neuroscience, political science, media studies and gender studies have also come to be seen as closely related to psychology.

Psychometrics
Psychometrics is the field of study (connected to psychology and statistics) concerned with the measurement of "psychological" aspects of a person such as knowledge, skills, abilities, or personality. The field of Psychometrics is primarily concerned with differences between individuals and employs statistical tools such as normal distribution and factor analysis. Measurement of these unobservable phenomena is difficult and much of the research and accumulated art of this discipline is designed to reliably define and then quantify. Critics, including "hard science" practitioners and social activists, have argued that such definition and quantification is impossibly difficult and that such measurements are very often misused (although users of psychometric techniques can reply that their critics often misuse data by not assessing them with psychometric criteria). Figures who made significant contributions to psychometrics include Karl Pearson, L. L. Thurstone, Georg Rasch and Arthur Jensen. Significant critics include the late Stephen Jay Gould.