IQ Glossary

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Effect Size
An effect size is the strength or magnitude of the difference between two sets of data or, in outcome studies, between two time points for the same population. (The degree to which the null hypothesis is false).

Egocentrism is the practice of regarding oneself and one's own opinions or interests as most important. The term is derived from the Greek eg?, meaning "I".

Ellis, Albert
Albert Ellis | Ellis, Albert(born September 27, 1913, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is a psychologist whose Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), is the foundation of all cognitive and cognitive behavior therapies. REBT is a comprehensive theory of personality and psychotherapy which holds that one's personal beliefs, evaluations, and personal philosophy control one's feelings.

Endorphins are endogenous opioid biochemical compounds. They are peptides produced by the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus in vertebrates, and they resemble the opiates in their abilities to produce analgesia and a sense of well-being. In other words, they work as "natural pain killers".

Epinephrine (INN) or adrenaline (BAN) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. A neurotransmitter is a specific kind of hormone, released by neurons to regulate activity of target tissues (e.g. brain cells, muscle cells,...). The Latin roots ad-+renes and the Greek roots epi-+nephros both literally mean "on/to the kidney" (referring to the adrenal gland, which secretes epinephrine). Epinephrine is sometimes shortened to epi in medical jargon.

Episodic Memory
Episodic memory, or autobiographical memory, is the explicit memory of events. It includes time, place, and associated emotions (which affect the quality of the memorization). Episodic memory contrasts and interacts with semantic memory, the memory of facts and concepts. Episodic memories can be likened to written stories.

Equity Theory
Peter Drucker, in his work on compensation asserted that employees seek to maintain equity between the inputs that they bring to a job and the outputs that they receive from it.

Escapism is mental diversion by means of entertainment or recreation, as an "escape" from the unpleasant aspects of daily reality.

Ethology is the scientific study of animal behaviour (particularly of social animals such as primates and canids.), and is a branch of zoology. A scientist who practises ethology is called an ethologist.

Etiology (alternately aetiology, aitiology) is the study of causation. The term (deriving from the Greek words aitia = cause and logos = word/speech) is used in philosophy, physics and biology in reference to the causes of various phenomena. It is generally the study of why things occur, or even the reasons behind the way that things act.

In the field of learning and memory, extinction is the process by which learned associations are actively forgotten. See classical conditioning.

Extrinsic Motivation
Traditionally, extrinsic motivation has been used to motivate employees: Payments, rewards, control, or punishments. Within economies transitioning from assembly lines to service industries, the importance of intrinsic motivation rises: