IQ Glossary

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Canonical Correlation
In statistics, canonical correlation analysis, introduced by Harold Hotelling, is a way of making sense of cross-covariance matrices.

Castration Anxiety
Castration anxiety is a fear posited by Sigmund Freud in his writings on the Oedipus complex at the genital stage of sexual development. It asserts that boys seeing a girl's genitalia will falsely assume that the girl must have had her penis removed, probably as punishment for some misbehavior, and will be anxious lest the same happen to him.

Catharsis is a sudden emotional breakdown or climax that constitutes overwhelming feelings of great pity, sorrow, laughter, or any extreme change in emotion that results in the renewal, restoration and revitalization for living.

The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, sometimes called the "building blocks of life." Some organisms, such as bacteria, are unicellular, consisting of a single cell. Other organisms, such as humans, are multicellular, (humans have an estimated 100,000 billion = 1014 cells). The cell theory, first developed in the 19th century, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells; all cells come from preexisting cells; all vital functions of an organism occur within cells and that cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells.

The cerebellum (literally "little brain") is a brain region important for the integration of sensory perception with motor output. The numerous loops both within and through the cerebellum with the motor cortex and spinocerebellar tracts indicate the cerebellum is as an integrative region, modulating function. Lesions of the cerebellum do not cause paralysis but rather cause feedback deficits manifesting as disorders in fine movement, equilibrium, posture, and motor learning .

Cerebral Hemisphere
The cerebral hemisphere forms one half of a brain. Humans (and many other types of animals) have a brain divided into two hemispheres. Each hemisphere has corresponding structures, and structural locations; however, they are not mirror images. Instead, the hemispheres usually are asymmetrical giving specialized function to each hemisphere. Each hemisphere also has an outer layer of grey matter called the cerebral cortex.

Chemical Imbalance Theory
The chemical imbalance theory posits a belief there is a simple chemical or physical malfunction of the brain, causing mental disorders, which can be fixed using psychotropic drugs, electroconvulsive therapy, or psychosurgery. The term 'chemical imbalance', used extensively as a tagline by drug companies in the United States after deregulation of pharmaceutical advertising, is not a medical or scientific term, and in this respect, is not the basis for any scientific theory. The term 'chemical imbalance theory' is most frequently used by critics of the drug industry.

Classical Conditioning
Classical conditioning, also called "Pavlovian conditioning" or "respondent conditioning", is a type of learning found in animals, caused by the association (or pairing) of two stimuli. The simplest form of classical conditioning is reminiscent of what Aristotle would have called the law of contiguity. Essentially, Aristotle said, "When two things commonly occur together, the appearance of one will bring the other to mind."

Coercion is the practice of compelling a person to act by employing threat of harm (usually physical force, sometimes other forms of harm). Often, it involves the use of actual force in order to make the threat credible, but it is the threat of (further) force which brings about cooperation of the person being coerced.

Cognitive Dissonance
Cognitive dissonance is a condition first proposed by the psychologist Leon Festinger in 1956, relating to his hypothesis of cognitive consistency.

Cognitive Psychology
The psychological science which studies cognition, the mental processes that are hypothesised to underlie behavior. This covers a broad range of research domains, examining questions about the workings of memory, attention, perception, knowledge representation, reasoning, creativity and problem solving.

Cognitive Therapy
Cognitive therapy or cognitive behavior therapy is a kind of psychotherapy used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, phobias, and other forms of mental disorder. It involves recognising distorted thinking and learning to replace it with more realistic substitute ideas. Its practitioners hold that much (though not all) clinical depression is associated with (although not necessarily caused by) irrational thoughts. Cognitive therapy is often used in conjunction with mood stabilizing medications to treat bipolar disorder. According to the U.S-based National Association of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapists:

Collective Unconscious
Collective unconscious is a term of analytical psychology, and was originally coined by Carl Jung. He distinguished the collective unconscious from the personal unconscious, which is particular to each human being. The collective unconscious refers to that part of a person's unconscious which is common to all human beings. It contains archetypes, which are forms or symbols that are manifested by all people in all cultures. Some have pointed out that this is essentially metaphysics since it is a hypothesis that can never be empirically confirmed or falsified; it was simply formulated by Jung as a model. The difference in their conceptualization of the unconscious is one of the more conspicuous differences between the psychologies founded by Jung and Freud.

A compulsion is an irrational need to perform some action, often despite negative consequences.

Concrete Operational Stage
The Theory of Cognitive development offered by Jean Piaget is often criticized by more recent psychologists who claim it underestimated the cognitive skills of younger children and overestimated the abilities of adolescents relative to adults. However, if the test of conservation he conducted is attempted - filling a glass of water and then transferring the water to another container of equal size and asking "which has more water, this or the other glass?", on children prior to the operational stage they normally will be unable to answer or will answer incorrectly due to, most likely, centration

Confidence Intervals
In statistics, confidence intervals are the most prevalent form of interval estimation.

Conformity is the act of maintaining a certain degree of similarity (in clothing, manners, behaviors, etc.) to those in your general social circles or to those in authority. Usually, conformity implies a tendency to submit to others in thought and behavior other than simply clothing choice. It can also refer to:

Confounding Factor
In statistics, a confounding factor is a factor which is the common cause of two things that may falsely appear to be in a causal relationship. It is the cause of a spurious relationship.

Conscience is generally thought of as a moral faculty, sense, or feeling that impels individuals to believe that particular activities are morally right or wrong.

Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and one's environment. Philosophers divide consciousness into phenomenal consciousness which is experience itself and access consciousness which is the processing of the things in experience (Block 2004).

In the absence of a more specific context, convergence denotes the approach toward a definite value, as time goes on; or to a definite point, a common view or opinion, or toward a fixed or equilibrium state.

Convergent And Divergent Production
Convergent and divergent production are the two types of human response to a set problem that were identified by J. P. Guilford. Convergent production is the deductive generation of the best single answer to a set problem, usually where there is a compelling inference. For example, find answers to the question What is the sum of the internal angles of a triangle?