IQ stands for intelligence quotient and is a mental capability score that is determined by the ability to reason, solve problems, think abstractly, and recognize patterns such as the relationships of elements in a configuration.
Types of Intelligence
Fluid Intelligence includes such abilities as problem-solving, memory, learning, and pattern recognition.
Crystallized Intelligence is more static, consisting primarily of acquired knowledge.
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The IQ test as we know today began with the Stanford-Binet test. Theodore Simon and Alfred Binet devised the IQ test in 1905. Their post test analysis was used to indicate a need for more teaching and didn't necessarily imply an inability to learn. This philosophy is still held today with professionals and researchers.
IQ, an abbreviation for "intelligence quotient", is a score used to measure general cognitive ability derived from a set of standardized tests. It is expressed as a number normalized so that the average IQ in an age group is 100 -- in other words an individual scoring 115 is above-average when compared to similarly aged people. The distribution of IQ scores is more-or-less Gaussian, that is it follows the famous "bell curve".